3.3. Frame Samples and Pipelines¶
3.3.1. Base Classes¶
3.3.1.1. Frame Sampler¶
For the higher dimensional observers (>0D) frame samplers determine how the individual pixels that make up the observers frame are sampled. For example, sample the full frame or adaptively select pixels to sample based on their noise level.

class
raysect.optical.observer.base.sampler.
FrameSampler1D
¶ Base class for 1D frame samplers.

generate_tasks
()¶ Generates a list of tuples that selects the pixels to render.
Must return a list of tuples where each tuple contains the id of a pixel to render. For example:
tasks = [(1,), (5,), (512,), …]
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.
 Parameters
pixels (int) – The number of pixels in the frame.
 Return type
list


class
raysect.optical.observer.base.sampler.
FrameSampler2D
¶ Base class for 2D frame samplers.

generate_tasks
()¶ Generates a list of tuples that selects the pixels to render.
Must return a list of tuples where each tuple contains the id of a pixel to render. For example:
tasks = [(1, 10), (5, 53), (512, 354), …]
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.
 Parameters
pixels (tuple) – Contains the (x, y) pixel dimensions of the frame.
 Return type
list

3.3.1.2. Pipeline¶
Pipelines define how spectra are processed by observers into the form desired by the user. For example, the power pipelines define how the measured spectra is integrated over the spectral range to give the overall power in W arriving at the observing surfaces. The also control the display and visualisation of results.

class
raysect.optical.observer.base.pipeline.
Pipeline0D
¶ The base class for 0D pipelines.

finalise
()¶ Finalises the results when rendering has finished.
This method is called when all workers have finished sampling and the results need to undergo any final processing.
If this pipeline implements some form of visualisation, use this method to plot the final visualisation of results.
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.

initialise
()¶ Initialises containers for the pipeline’s processing output.
The deriving class should use this method to perform any initialisation needed for their calculations.
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.
 Parameters
min_wavelength (float) – The minimum wavelength in the spectral range.
max_wavelength (float) – The maximum wavelength in the spectral range.
spectral_bins (int) – Number of spectral samples across wavelength range.
spectral_slices (list) – List of spectral subranges for cases where spectral rays is > 1 (i.e. dispersion effects turned on).
quiet (bool) – When True, suppresses output to the terminal.

pixel_processor
()¶ Initialise and return a pixel processor for this pipeline.
Called by worker threads, each worker will request a pixel processor for processing the output of their work from each pipeline.
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.
 Parameters
slice_id (int) – The integer identifying the spectral slice being worked on by the requesting worker thread.
 Return type
PixelProcessor

update
()¶ Updates the internal results array with packed results from the pixel processor.
After worker threads have observed the world and used the pixel processor to process the spectra into packed results, the worker then passes the packed results to the pipeline with the update() method.
If this pipeline implements some form of visualisation, update the visualisation at the end of this method.
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.
 Parameters
slice_id (int) – The integer identifying the spectral slice being worked on by the worker thread.
packed_result (tuple) – The tuple of results generated by this pipeline’s PixelProcessor.
samples (int) – The number of samples taken by the worker. Needed for ensuring accuracy of statistical errors when combining new samples with previous results.


class
raysect.optical.observer.base.pipeline.
Pipeline1D
¶ The base class for 1D pipelines.

finalise
()¶ Finalises the results when rendering has finished.
This method is called when all workers have finished sampling and the results need to undergo any final processing.
If this pipeline implements some form of visualisation, use this method to plot the final visualisation of results.
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.

initialise
()¶ Initialises containers for the pipeline’s processing output.
The deriving class should use this method to perform any initialisation needed for their calculations.
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.
 Parameters
pixels (tuple) – A tuple defining the pixel dimensions being sampled (i.e. (256,)).
pixel_samples (int) – The number of samples being taken per pixel. Needed for statistical calculations.
min_wavelength (float) – The minimum wavelength in the spectral range.
max_wavelength (float) – The maximum wavelength in the spectral range.
spectral_bins (int) – Number of spectral samples across wavelength range.
spectral_slices (list) – List of spectral subranges for cases where spectral rays is > 1 (i.e. dispersion effects turned on).
quiet (bool) – When True, suppresses output to the terminal.

pixel_processor
()¶ Initialise and return a pixel processor for this pipeline and pixel coordinate.
Called by worker threads, each worker will request a pixel processor for the pixel they are processing.
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.
 Parameters
pixel (int) – The pixel coordinate of the pixel being sampled by the worker.
slice_id (int) – The integer identifying the spectral slice being worked on by the requesting worker thread.
 Return type
PixelProcessor

update
()¶ Updates the internal results array with packed results from the pixel processor.
After worker threads have observed the world and used the pixel processor to process the spectra into packed results, the worker then passes the packed results for the current pixel to the pipeline with the update() method. This method should add the results for this pixel to the pipeline’s results array.
If this pipeline implements some form of visualisation, update the visualisation at the end of this method.
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.
 Parameters
pixel (int) – The integer identifying the pixel being worked on.
slice_id (int) – The integer identifying the spectral slice being worked on by the worker thread.
packed_result (tuple) – The tuple of results generated by this pipeline’s PixelProcessor.


class
raysect.optical.observer.base.pipeline.
Pipeline2D
¶ The base class for 2D pipelines.

finalise
()¶ Finalises the results when rendering has finished.
This method is called when all workers have finished sampling and the results need to undergo any final processing.
If this pipeline implements some form of visualisation, use this method to plot the final visualisation of results.
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.

initialise
()¶ Initialises containers for the pipeline’s processing output.
The deriving class should use this method to perform any initialisation needed for their calculations.
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.
 Parameters
pixels (tuple) – A tuple defining the pixel dimensions being sampled (i.e. (512, 512)).
pixel_samples (int) – The number of samples being taken per pixel. Needed for statistical calculations.
min_wavelength (float) – The minimum wavelength in the spectral range.
max_wavelength (float) – The maximum wavelength in the spectral range.
spectral_bins (int) – Number of spectral samples across wavelength range.
spectral_slices (list) – List of spectral subranges for cases where spectral rays is > 1 (i.e. dispersion effects turned on).
quiet (bool) – When True, suppresses output to the terminal.

pixel_processor
()¶ Initialise and return a pixel processor for this pipeline and pixel coordinate.
Called by worker threads, each worker will request a pixel processor for the pixel they are currently processing.
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.
 Parameters
x (int) – The x pixel coordinate (x, y) of the pixel being sampled by the worker.
y (int) – The y pixel coordinate (x, y) of the pixel being sampled by the worker.
slice_id (int) – The integer identifying the spectral slice being worked on by the requesting worker thread.
 Return type
PixelProcessor

update
()¶ Updates the internal results array with packed results from the pixel processor.
After worker threads have observed the world and used the pixel processor to process the spectra into packed results, the worker then passes the packed results for the current pixel to the pipeline with the update() method. This method should add the results for this pixel to the pipeline’s results array.
If this pipeline implements some form of visualisation, update the visualisation at the end of this method.
This is a virtual method and must be implemented in a sub class.
 Parameters
x (int) – The x pixel coordinate (x, y) of the pixel being sampled by the worker.
y (int) – The y pixel coordinate (x, y) of the pixel being sampled by the worker.
slice_id (int) – The integer identifying the spectral slice being worked on by the worker thread.
packed_result (tuple) – The tuple of results generated by this pipeline’s PixelProcessor.

3.3.2. RGB¶

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.rgb.
RGBPipeline2D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.pipeline.Pipeline2D
2D pipeline of sRGB colour values.
Converts the measured spectrum from each pixel into sRGB colour space values. See the colour module for more information. The RGBPipeline2D class is the workhorse pipeline for visualisation of scenes with Raysect and the default pipeline for most 2D observers.
 Parameters
display_progress (bool) – Toggles the display of live render progress (default=True).
display_update_time (float) – Time in seconds between preview display updates (default=15 seconds).
accumulate (bool) – Whether to accumulate samples with subsequent calls to observe() (default=True).
display_auto_exposure (bool) – Toggles the use of automatic exposure of final images (default=True).
display_sensitivity (float) – The sensitivity of the camera, effectively inverse of the exposure time (default=1.0).
display_unsaturated_fraction (float) – Fraction of pixels that must not be saturated. Display values will be scaled to satisfy this value (default=1.0).
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.

display
()¶ Plot the RGB frame.

display_auto_exposure
¶ Toggles the use of automatic exposure on final image.
 Return type
bool

display_sensitivity
¶ The sensitivity of the camera, effectively inverse of the exposure time.
 Return type
float

display_unsaturated_fraction
¶ Fraction of pixels that must not be saturated. Display values will be scaled to satisfy this value.
 Return type
float

display_update_time
¶ Time in seconds between preview display updates.
 Return type
float

save
()¶ Saves the display image to a png file.
The current display settings (exposure, gamma, etc..) are used to process the image prior saving.
 Parameters
filename (str) – Image path and filename.
3.3.3. Bayer¶

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.bayer.
BayerPipeline2D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.pipeline.Pipeline2D
A 2D pipeline simulating a Bayer filter.
Many commercial cameras use a Bayer filter for converting measured spectra into a 2D image of RGB values. The 2D sensor pixel array is covered with a mosaic of alternating red, green and blue filters. Thus each pixel in the array is only responsive to one of the colour filters simulating the response of the human eye. The final image is represented by a 2D grid of only red, green and blue values. The eye interpolates these values to create other colours. See Wikipedia for more information.
 Parameters
red_filter (SpectralFunction) – The spectral function representing the red pixel filter.
green_filter (SpectralFunction) – The spectral function representing the green pixel filter.
blue_filter (SpectralFunction) – The spectral function representing the blue pixel filter.
display_progress (bool) – Toggles the display of live render progress (default=True).
display_update_time (float) – Time in seconds between preview display updates (default=15 seconds).
accumulate (bool) – Whether to accumulate samples with subsequent calls to observe() (default=True).
display_auto_exposure (bool) – Toggles the use of automatic exposure of final images (default=True).
display_black_point (float) – Lower clamp point for pixel to appear black (default=0.0).
display_white_point (float) – Upper clamp point for pixel saturation (default=1.0).
display_unsaturated_fraction (float) – Fraction of pixels that must not be saturated. Display values will be scaled to satisfy this value (default=1.0).
display_gamma (float) – Gamma exponent to account for nonlinear response of display screens (default=2.2).
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline (default=”Bayer Pipeline”).
>>> from raysect.optical import InterpolatedSF >>> from raysect.optical.observer import BayerPipeline2D >>> >>> filter_red = InterpolatedSF([100, 650, 660, 670, 680, 800], [0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0]) >>> filter_green = InterpolatedSF([100, 530, 540, 550, 560, 800], [0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0]) >>> filter_blue = InterpolatedSF([100, 480, 490, 500, 510, 800], [0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0]) >>> >>> bayer = BayerPipeline2D(filter_red, filter_green, filter_blue, display_unsaturated_fraction=0.96, name="Bayer Filter")

display
()¶ Plot the RGB frame.

display_auto_exposure
¶ Toggles the use of automatic exposure on final image.
 Return type
bool

display_black_point
¶ Lower clamp point for pixel to appear black.
 Return type
float

display_gamma
¶ Power law exponent to approximate nonlinear human eye response.
Each pixel value will be raised to power gamma:
\[V_{out} = V_{in}^{\gamma}\]For more information see Wikipedia.
 Return type
float

display_unsaturated_fraction
¶ Fraction of pixels that must not be saturated. Display values will be scaled to satisfy this value.
 Return type
float

display_update_time
¶ Time in seconds between preview display updates.
 Return type
float

display_white_point
¶ Upper clamp point for pixel colour saturation.
 Return type
float

save
()¶ Saves the display image to a png file.
The current display settings (exposure, gamma, etc..) are used to process the image prior saving.
 Parameters
filename (str) – Image path and filename.
3.3.4. Power¶

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.mono.
PowerPipeline0D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.pipeline.Pipeline0D
A power pipeline for 0D observers.
The raw spectrum collected by the observer is multiplied by a spectra filter and integrated to give to total power collected.
The measured value and error are accessed at self.value.mean and self.value.error respectively.
 Parameters
filter (SpectralFunction) – A filter function to be multiplied with the measured spectrum.
accumulate (bool) –
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.mono.
PowerPipeline1D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.pipeline.Pipeline1D
A power pipeline for 1D observers.
The raw spectrum collected at each pixel by the observer is multiplied by a spectral filter and integrated to give to total power collected at that pixel.
The measured value and error for each pixel are accessed at self.frame.mean and self.frame.error respectively.
 Parameters
filter (SpectralFunction) – A filter function to be multiplied with the measured spectrum.
accumulate (bool) – Whether to accumulate samples with subsequent calls to observe() (default=True).
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.mono.
PowerPipeline2D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.pipeline.Pipeline2D
A power pipeline for 2D observers.
The raw spectrum collected at each pixel by the observer is multiplied by a spectral filter and integrated to give to total power collected at that pixel.
The measured value and error for each pixel are accessed at self.frame.mean and self.frame.error respectively.
 Parameters
filter (SpectralFunction) – A filter function to be multiplied with the measured spectrum.
display_progress (bool) – Toggles the display of live render progress (default=True).
display_update_time (float) – Time in seconds between preview display updates (default=15 seconds).
accumulate (bool) – Whether to accumulate samples with subsequent calls to observe() (default=True).
display_auto_exposure (bool) – Toggles the use of automatic exposure of final images (default=True).
display_black_point (float) –
display_white_point (float) –
display_unsaturated_fraction (float) – Fraction of pixels that must not be saturated. Display values will be scaled to satisfy this value (default=1.0).
display_gamma (float) –
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.

display_auto_exposure
¶ Toggles the use of automatic exposure on final image.
 Return type
bool

display_unsaturated_fraction
¶ Fraction of pixels that must not be saturated. Display values will be scaled to satisfy this value.
 Return type
float

display_update_time
¶ Time in seconds between preview display updates.
 Return type
float

save
()¶ Saves the display image to a png file.
The current display settings (exposure, gamma, etc..) are used to process the image prior saving.
 Parameters
filename (str) – Image path and filename.
3.3.5. Radiance¶

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.mono.
RadiancePipeline0D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.mono.power.PowerPipeline0D
A radiance pipeline for 0D observers.
The raw spectrum collected by the observer is multiplied by a spectra filter and integrated to give to total radiance collected (W/str/m^2).
The measured value and error are accessed at self.value.mean and self.value.error respectively.
 Parameters
filter (SpectralFunction) – A filter function to be multiplied with the measured spectrum.
accumulate (bool) –
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.mono.
RadiancePipeline1D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.mono.power.PowerPipeline1D
A radiance pipeline for 1D observers.
The raw spectrum collected at each pixel by the observer is multiplied by a spectral filter and integrated to give to total radiance collected at that pixel (W/str/m^2).
The measured value and error for each pixel are accessed at self.frame.mean and self.frame.error respectively.
 Parameters
filter (SpectralFunction) – A filter function to be multiplied with the measured spectrum.
accumulate (bool) – Whether to accumulate samples with subsequent calls to observe() (default=True).
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.mono.
RadiancePipeline2D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.mono.power.PowerPipeline2D
A radiance pipeline for 2D observers.
The raw spectrum collected at each pixel by the observer is multiplied by a spectral filter and integrated to give to total radiance collected at that pixel (W/str/m^2).
The measured value and error for each pixel are accessed at self.frame.mean and self.frame.error respectively.
 Parameters
filter (SpectralFunction) – A filter function to be multiplied with the measured spectrum.
display_progress (bool) – Toggles the display of live render progress (default=True).
display_update_time (float) – Time in seconds between preview display updates (default=15 seconds).
accumulate (bool) – Whether to accumulate samples with subsequent calls to observe() (default=True).
display_auto_exposure (bool) – Toggles the use of automatic exposure of final images (default=True).
display_black_point (float) –
display_white_point (float) –
display_unsaturated_fraction (float) – Fraction of pixels that must not be saturated. Display values will be scaled to satisfy this value (default=1.0).
display_gamma (float) –
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.
3.3.6. Spectral¶

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.spectral.
SpectralPowerPipeline0D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.pipeline.Pipeline0D
A basic spectral power pipeline for 0D observers (W/nm).
The mean spectral power for the observer is stored along with the associated error on each wavelength bin.
Spectral values and errors are available through the self.frame attribute.
 Parameters
accumulate (bool) – Whether to accumulate samples with subsequent calls to observe() (default=True).
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.spectral.
SpectralRadiancePipeline0D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.spectral.power.SpectralPowerPipeline0D
A basic spectral radiance pipeline for 0D observers (W/str/m^2/nm).
The mean spectral radiance for the observer is stored along with the associated error on each wavelength bin.
Spectral values and errors are available through the self.frame attribute.
 Parameters
accumulate (bool) – Whether to accumulate samples with subsequent calls to observe() (default=True).
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.

to_spectrum
()¶ Returns the mean spectral radiance in a Spectrum() object.

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.spectral.
SpectralPowerPipeline1D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.pipeline.Pipeline1D
A basic spectral power pipeline for 1D observers (W/nm).
The mean spectral power for each pixel is stored along with the associated error on each wavelength bin in a 1D frame object.
Spectral values and errors are available through the self.frame attribute.
 Parameters
accumulate (bool) – Whether to accumulate samples with subsequent calls to observe() (default=True).
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.spectral.
SpectralRadiancePipeline1D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.spectral.power.SpectralPowerPipeline1D
A basic spectral radiance pipeline for 1D observers (W/str/m^2/nm).
The mean spectral radiance for each pixel is stored along with the associated error on each wavelength bin in a 1D frame object.
Spectral values and errors are available through the self.frame attribute.
 Parameters
accumulate (bool) – Whether to accumulate samples with subsequent calls to observe() (default=True).
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.

to_spectrum
()¶ Returns the mean spectral radiance of pixel in a Spectrum() object.

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.spectral.
SpectralPowerPipeline2D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.pipeline.Pipeline2D
A basic spectral power pipeline for 2D observers (W/nm).
The mean spectral power for each pixel is stored along with the associated error on each wavelength bin in a 2D frame object.
Spectral values and errors are available through the self.frame attribute.
 Parameters
accumulate (bool) – Whether to accumulate samples with subsequent calls to observe() (default=True).
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.

class
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.spectral.
SpectralRadiancePipeline2D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.pipeline.spectral.power.SpectralPowerPipeline2D
A basic spectral radiance pipeline for 2D observers (W/str/m^2/nm).
The mean spectral radiance for each pixel is stored along with the associated error on each wavelength bin in a 2D frame object.
Spectral values and errors are available through the self.frame attribute.
 Parameters
accumulate (bool) – Whether to accumulate samples with subsequent calls to observe() (default=True).
name (str) – User friendly name for this pipeline.

to_spectrum
()¶ Returns the mean spectral radiance of pixel (x, y) in a Spectrum() object.
3.3.7. Frame Samplers¶

class
raysect.optical.observer.sampler1d.
FullFrameSampler1D
¶

class
raysect.optical.observer.sampler1d.
MonoAdaptiveSampler1D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.sampler.FrameSampler1D
FrameSampler that dynamically adjusts a camera’s pixel samples based on the noise level in each pixel’s power value.
Pixels that have high noise levels will receive extra samples until the desired noise threshold is achieve across the whole image.
 Parameters
pipeline (PowerPipeline1D) – The specific power pipeline to use for feedback control.
fraction (float) – The fraction of frame pixels to receive extra sampling (default=0.2).
ratio (float) – The maximum allowable ratio between the maximum and minimum number of samples obtained for the pixels of the same observer (default=10). The sampler will generate additional tasks for pixels with the least number of samples in order to keep this ratio below a given value.
min_samples (int) – Minimum number of pixel samples across the image before turning on adaptive sampling (default=1000).
cutoff (double) – Normalised noise threshold at which extra sampling will be aborted and rendering will complete (default=0.0). The standard error is normalised to 1 so that a cutoff of 0.01 corresponds to 1% standard error.

class
raysect.optical.observer.sampler1d.
SpectralAdaptiveSampler1D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.sampler.FrameSampler1D
FrameSampler that dynamically adjusts a camera’s pixel samples based on the noise level in each pixel’s power value.
Pixels that have high noise levels will receive extra samples until the desired noise threshold is achieve across the whole image.
 Parameters
pipeline (SpectralPowerPipeline1D) – The specific spectral power pipeline to use for feedback control.
fraction (float) – The fraction of frame pixels to receive extra sampling (default=0.2).
ratio (float) – The maximum allowable ratio between the maximum and minimum number of samples obtained for the pixels of the same observer (default=10). The sampler will generate additional tasks for pixels with the least number of samples in order to keep this ratio below a given value.
min_samples (int) – Minimum number of pixel samples across the image before turning on adaptive sampling (default=1000).
cutoff (double) – Normalised noise threshold at which extra sampling will be aborted and rendering will complete (default=0.0). The standard error is normalised to 1 so that a cutoff of 0.01 corresponds to 1% standard error.
reduction_method (str) –
A method for obtaining spectralaverage value of normalised error of a pixel from spectral array of errors (default=’percentile’).
reduction_method=’weighted’: the error of a pixel is calculated as powerweighted average of the spectral errors,
reduction_method=’mean’: the error of a pixel is calculated as a mean of the spectral errors excluding spectral bins with zero power,
reduction_method=’percentile’: the error of a pixel is calculated as a userdefined percentile of the spectral errors excluding spectral bins with zero power.
reduction_method=’power_percentile’: the error of a pixel is calculated as the highest spectral error among a given percentage of spectral bins with the highest spectral power.
percentile (double) –
Used only if reduction_method=’percentile’ or reduction_method=’power_percentile’ (default=100).
reduction_method=’percentile’: If percentile=x, extra sampling will be aborted if x% of spectral bins of each pixel have normalised errors lower than cutoff.
reduction_method=’power_percentile’: If percentile=x, extra sampling will be aborted if x% of spectral bins with the highest spectral power all have normalised errors lower than cutoff.

class
raysect.optical.observer.sampler2d.
FullFrameSampler2D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.sampler.FrameSampler2D
Evenly samples the full 2D frame or its masked fragment.
 Parameters
mask (np.ndarray) – The image mask array (default=None). A 2D boolean array with the same shape as the frame. The tasks are generated only for those pixels for which the mask is True.

class
raysect.optical.observer.sampler2d.
MonoAdaptiveSampler2D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.sampler.FrameSampler2D
FrameSampler that dynamically adjusts a camera’s pixel samples based on the noise level in each pixel’s power value.
Pixels that have high noise levels will receive extra samples until the desired noise threshold is achieve across the whole image.
 Parameters
pipeline (PowerPipeline2D) – The specific power pipeline to use for feedback control.
fraction (float) – The fraction of frame (or its masked fragment) pixels to receive extra sampling (default=0.2).
ratio (float) – The maximum allowable ratio between the maximum and minimum number of samples obtained for the pixels of the same observer (default=10). The sampler will generate additional tasks for pixels with the least number of samples in order to keep this ratio below a given value.
min_samples (int) – Minimum number of pixel samples across the image (or its masked fragment) before turning on adaptive sampling (default=1000).
cutoff (double) – Normalised noise threshold at which extra sampling will be aborted and rendering will complete (default=0.0). The standard error is normalised to 1 so that a cutoff of 0.01 corresponds to 1% standard error.
mask (np.ndarray) – The image mask array (default=None). A 2D boolean array with the same shape as the frame. The tasks are generated only for those pixels for which the mask is True. If not provided, the alltrue mask will be created during the first call of generate_tasks().

class
raysect.optical.observer.sampler2d.
SpectralAdaptiveSampler2D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.sampler.FrameSampler2D
FrameSampler that dynamically adjusts a camera’s pixel samples based on the noise level in each pixel’s power value.
Pixels that have high noise levels will receive extra samples until the desired noise threshold is achieve across the whole image.
 Parameters
pipeline (SpectralPowerPipeline2D) – The specific power pipeline to use for feedback control.
fraction (float) – The fraction of frame (or its masked fragment) pixels to receive extra sampling (default=0.2).
ratio (float) – The maximum allowable ratio between the maximum and minimum number of samples obtained for the pixels of the same observer (default=10). The sampler will generate additional tasks for pixels with the least number of samples in order to keep this ratio below a given value.
min_samples (int) – Minimum number of pixel samples across the image (or its masked fragment) before turning on adaptive sampling (default=1000).
cutoff (double) – Normalised noise threshold at which extra sampling will be aborted and rendering will complete (default=0.0). The standard error is normalised to 1 so that a cutoff of 0.01 corresponds to 1% standard error.
reduction_method (str) –
A method for obtaining spectralaverage value of normalised error of a pixel from spectral array of errors (default=’percentile’).
reduction_method=’weighted’: the error of a pixel is calculated as powerweighted average of the spectral errors,
reduction_method=’mean’: the error of a pixel is calculated as a mean of the spectral errors excluding spectral bins with zero power,
reduction_method=’percentile’: the error of a pixel is calculated as a userdefined percentile of the spectral errors excluding spectral bins with zero power.
reduction_method=’power_percentile’: the error of a pixel is calculated as the highest spectral error among a given percentage of spectral bins with the highest spectral power.
percentile (double) –
Used only if reduction_method=’percentile’ or reduction_method=’power_percentile’ (default=100).
reduction_method=’percentile’: If percentile=x, extra sampling will be aborted if x% of spectral bins of each pixel have normalised errors lower than cutoff.
reduction_method=’power_percentile’: If percentile=x, extra sampling will be aborted if x% of spectral bins with the highest spectral power all have normalised errors lower than cutoff.

class
raysect.optical.observer.sampler2d.
RGBAdaptiveSampler2D
¶ Bases:
raysect.optical.observer.base.sampler.FrameSampler2D
FrameSampler that dynamically adjusts a camera’s pixel samples based on the noise level in each RGB pixel value.
Pixels that have high noise levels will receive extra samples until the desired noise threshold is achieve across the whole image.
 Parameters
pipeline (RGBPipeline2D) – The specific RGB pipeline to use for feedback control.
fraction (float) – The fraction of frame (or its masked fragment) pixels to receive extra sampling (default=0.2).
ratio (float) – The maximum allowable ratio between the maximum and minimum number of samples obtained for the pixels of the same observer (default=10). The sampler will generate additional tasks for pixels with the least number of samples in order to keep this ratio below a given value.
min_samples (int) – Minimum number of pixel samples across the image (or its masked fragment) before turning on adaptive sampling (default=1000).
cutoff (double) – Noise threshold at which extra sampling will be aborted and rendering will complete (default=0.0).
mask (np.ndarray) – The image mask array (default=None). A 2D boolean array with the same shape as the frame. The tasks are generated only for those pixels for which the mask is True. If not provided, the alltrue mask will be created during the first call of generate_tasks().